If you live in Illinois, you are married and you own your home, it is worth becoming familiar with the meaning of holding title to your home in the form of a tenancy by the entirety.
A tenancy by the entirety differs in several important ways from the other two ways title to real estate may be held by two or more people (tenancy in common and joint tenancy with rights of survivorship).
First, only married couples may hold title as tenants by the entirety. There is no marriage requirement to hold title as tenants in common or as joint tenants with rights of survivorship.
Second, the property must be a primary personal residence. No restriction exists regarding the type of property which can be held by tenants in common or joint tenants with rights of survivorship.
Third, there must be agreement between the tenants by the entirety if the tenancy is to be broken by them. No such agreement is required if fewer than all tenants in common or all joint tenants want to change how they hold title.
Fourth, only joint creditors (creditors of both the husband and the wife) may reach the home of the husband and wife where the home is held in tenancy by the entirety. If a creditor has a claim against only the husband or only the wife, the home held in tenancy by the entirety cannot be partitioned, sold or encumbered without the permission of both spouses.
Fifth, specific terminology must be used to create a tenancy by the entirety. In Illinois, the deed language must indicate that the parties are married and must use specific words creating the tenancy by the entirety. The following language is commonly used to create a tenancy by the entirety between Sam and Sally Smith: “to Sam Smith and Sally Smith, husband and wife, not as tenants in common nor as joint tenants with rights of survivorship but at tenants by the entirety”.
As stated earlier, a tenancy by the entirety may be terminated by agreement of the tenants. It may also be terminated by a court ordered sale to satisfy a joint debt of the husband and the wife, by a divorce or by the death of either the husband or the wife.
One last point, in many states, a husband and wife who take title jointly will automatically take title to their home as tenants by the entirety. Illinois is not one of those states. The specific language referenced earlier must be used for a tenancy by the entirety to be created in Illinois.