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It’s a huge responsibility to act as an agent under a power of attorney, and it isn’t something everyone is able or willing to do. If someone names you as an agent in their power of attorney document, you can resign or refuse the position.

The main types of power of attorney are financial and medical, and agents act in place of the principal (the person executing the power of attorney) if and when that person becomes incapacitated.

If you are an agent under a financial power of attorney, it’s your job to take spending and investment measures that the principal would take. Although there may be specific limitations in the power of attorney document, you can typically open and withdraw funds from bank accounts, trade stock, pay bills, cash checks, and things of that nature. It’s also important that you keep good records.

As you are preparing to bring your student to college, there’s some estate planning you will want to include as part of this preparation. Your child becomes a legal adult once they turn 18, and in most circumstances, you are no longer authorized to obtain information regarding their medical care or finances. Young adults should consider signing a Power of Attorney and Advance Directive for Health Care to prepare for the unlikely event of the type of emergency where it would be beneficial to give parents the authority to act on their behalf.

A Durable Power of Attorney gives the Agent (often a parent for college-aged young adults) authority to access bank accounts and act for them when it comes to legal matters. Your child has proven that they are responsible and independent, but it is wise to plan for what may happen in case of an emergency. A Power of Attorney would allow parents to do things for their child such as write checks, pay bills, and manage those types of affairs for their child.

One of the primary purposes of the Healthcare Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (“HIPAA”) is to protect the privacy of medical records and restrict access to personal medical information. An Advance Directive for Health Care is used to appoint a Health Care Representative and grant that person access to medical records as well as authority to make medical decisions for someone should they become unable to communicate with their medical providers. Without this document, medical professionals are not authorized to discuss medical care with the parents of the student being treated. Also, if the student has a medical emergency, parents may have to petition a court to be granted authority to make decisions for their child if they have not been appointed as Health Care Representative. A lot of stress may be avoided by taking the time to execute an Advance Directive before it would be needed.

People usually find it stressful to talk to family members about decisions they are making for their estate plan, and this can lead a lot of people to avoid having these conversations. Sometimes, a parent’s adult children won’t talk to their parents about this topic because they don’t want to acknowledge that their parent may one day become incapacitated and will eventually pass away. It can be too difficult for children to accept that their parents may be anything less than healthy and safe from harm.

The dynamics of that family may also make it harder for these conversations to take place. It’s common for one sibling to live closer to their parents and see more of the reality of the parents’ health and illness as they age while a sibling who lives far away has trouble accepting that there are any issues at all.  The child who sees their parents more often may want to have conversations about planning for incapacity or death, and the child who doesn’t live locally may see this as inappropriate or not yet needed.

An estate plan is a collection of documents nearly all adults should have in order to plan for if they become unable to make their own decisions and for when they die. This typically includes documents such as:

It’s rare for an estate plan to be put together and never be changed. Wills and trusts usually need to be changed over time as your circumstances, states of residence, and desired outcomes shift. It is important to know how you can properly change your will or trust so that these revisions will be enforced.

Writing on your will or trust to edit or amend it or attaching a hand-written addendum to this document isn’t a good idea. States have different requirements for how to change a will or trust, so it’s important to learn what is considered legally valid in your state.

For a will, a legally enforceable change can be accomplished by replacing the prior will document with an entirely new one (you’ll also want to explicitly state in the new document that all prior wills are revoked and replaced) or by adding a document called a codicil to the old will document. The codicil should specify exactly what part of the old document is being changed, and it will often reaffirm the other terms of the old will document that remain unchanged.

It is important not only to have estate planning documents in place, but also to keep these documents up-to-date as your life changes. The rule of thumb is to review these documents every five years to see if any revisions need to be made. If changes have occurred in your life since documents were last updated, it may be necessary to revise your estate planning documents. Here are some of the life changes that may prompt the need to update your documents:

1) Marriage. If estate planning documents were last revised before you got married, you’ll want to update them to include provisions for your spouse. Often, people wish to name their spouse as Executor under their Will or as primary Agent in Power of Attorney documents. You’ll also want to make sure that your spouse will receive assets under your Will.

2) Children. You’ll want to be sure to update estate planning documents when children are born, including planning for minor children (such as adding testamentary trust language and choosing guardians for them). You’ll likely want to update your estate planning documents again once your children reach a certain age as well as when they legally become adults.

People are often aware of how important it is to have complete and up-to-date estate planning documents but may not realize that where those documents are stored can be just as important and can greatly help (or hurt, if they are not stored properly).

Estate planning documents are to be used in the event of one’s incapacity and at their death. It’s crucial that those named to serve in those documents know that the documents exist, where they are located, and how to access them. The original documents will be of little use if they can’t be located. A beneficiary named in a will may be out of luck if the original will cannot be found, and some states may make this more challenging than others. In Virginia, for example, the law presumes that if an original will cannot be located, the creator of the will destroyed it with the intent that it be revoked. Trying to admit a photocopy of a will to probate can be expensive and time consuming, and this copy may not end up being accepted.

Here are some tips for proper storage of estate planning documents:

As is the case with many questions regarding legal matters, this depends on some different factors. It is more simple to name your spouse directly, and your spouse could then convert your retirement plans to their IRA and take withdrawals on their schedule.

That being said, trusts have a number of advantages. Trusts can provide a lot of protections, including greater creditor protection compared to retirement funds, protection in the event your spouse becomes incapacitated, protection from scams (as seniors are often targeted), and protection of assets from having to be spent paying for long-term care. They can also preserve funds that are not needed by your spouse for your children.

Trusts can also be a useful estate planning tool. As the threshold is just over $12 million, most Americans don’t need to worry about the federal estate tax. However, many states have their own estate taxes, including some with the threshold as low as $1 million. A trust can protect this amount from being taxed following the death of the survivor of yourself and your spouse.

In last week’s post, I addressed why it is important to talk to your parents about planning for their death as well as some tips for how to begin this challenging conversation with them. Today I’ll share the “what” and “when” of this important conversation:

What should be covered?

There are a number of documents you’ll want to ask your parents about. Start by asking them if they have a power of attorney for finances which names an individual to make money decisions for them when they become unable to make these decisions themselves. You’ll also want to ask if they have similar documents for health care, including an advanced care directive, health care proxy, or power of attorney for health care. Also see if they have a living will to outline their wishes for end-of-life care.

If you’ve lost a parent, you’ve felt the devastating reality that everyone – including everyone’s parents – will one day pass away. Often, their children are the ones who have to handle financial responsibilities while handling their own grief. Planning in advance for the tasks that will need to be done can make that difficult time a little easier.

“We surely ought to have some idea of what we’re facing,” says Melanie Cullen, San Francisco Bay Area-based author of “Get It Together: Organize Your Records So Your Family Won’t Have To.” She continues, “On the other side of it, our parents need to know we’re interested, we care, we’re there to help.”

This week I’ll address why it’s important to have this conversation and how to bring up this topic with your parents:

Do you own real property in multiple states? Perhaps you are a snowbird or own investment properties such as rentals in more than one state. If you do, your estate will likely be required to go through probate in each state where you own real property at the time of your death. Probate isn’t necessarily a bad thing, but it is often very time consuming and can quickly become expensive with court costs and lawyer’s fees. In cases where real property is owned in multiple states, that would mean going through probates in each of those states.

However, there are a number of methods that can be used to try to avoid probate:

One method is to add the intended heirs to the title of the real estate while the primary owners are still alive. However, this is not often advised. If any of the intended heirs (who then become co-owners of the real estate) get into financial trouble – such as bankruptcy, divorce, being sued, creditor issues, etc. – the primary owners of the real estate also become involved in their financial trouble. Parents shouldn’t lose their home or other properties because their child was sued by another person.